Punjab has been putting constant efforts to improve its infrastructure, ensuring better accessibility and facilities to the industry at large. Not only this, the state's other major motive is to attract investments.
Punjab has a literacy rate of 70 per cent, according to the Census (2001). With an intention to enable its people to synchronise with the challenges of the 21st century, the state has been steadily building its human resources. It has also been encouraging private sector participation in the education sector, particularly in the area of technical and vocational education.
Every year, around 360,000 students join primary schools, settled within 1 km radius of every village. The state has 6 universities, 232 graduate colleges, and 4,043 senior secondary schools. There are leading technical, medical, management, and law institutions. The state encourages private participation of students in technical & vocational education.
Punjab is also gearing up to be a hub for biotechnology. It has five leading biotech institutions that produce 200 graduates and 100 postgraduates and doctorates in the field of biotechnology/ bio-engineering. These institutes are the Punjab State Council for Science & Technology (PSCST), Punjab Agriculture University (PAU), Thapar Institute of Engineering & Technology (TIET), Institute of Microbial Technology (IMTECH) and and the Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education & Research (PGIMER).
Punjab has ~205 hospitals, 440 primary health centres and 1,480 dispensaries. The 90 percent of non-hospital healthcare and 67 percent of hospital care cases come under private healthcare. At the same time, the state has better health ratios as compared to the national average.
Punjab is among the first states with 100 percent connectivity of rural areas with metalled roads. The state's road density is 121 km/100 sq km while its national average is 76.8 km/100 sq km. Its existing network is being upgraded, with express highways and freeways being taken up, for example, a corridor of Chandigarh-Ludhiana highway. Similarly, Chandigarh-Ludhiana, Zirakpur-Patiala, Ropar-Nawanshahar, and Jagraon-Nakodar highways are under the process of upgradation.
The state has its International airport in Amritsar whereas the domestic airport is set in Chandigarh. Air cargo complex in Amritsar, inland container depot in Ludhiana and container freight stations in Jalandhar, Ludhiana, Amritsar, Bathinda, and Rajpura provide conductive environment for trade and cargo export within and outside India.
Punjab is well connected by rail with all its main cities, Chandigarh, Ludhiana, Amritsar, Ferozepur and Jalandhar on the main line to New Delhi. With the completion of a number of on-going railway projects, the railway infrastructure in Punjab will get a further boost. The state's railway route length is approximately 2,098 km. The chief railway routes are Amritsar-Ambala-Delhi, Sriganganagar-Ambala-Delhi, Ferozepur-Ludhiana-Ambala, Pathankot-Rupnagar-Fatehgarhsahib, and Sriganganagar-Bathinda-Narwana.
PowerPunjan is giving stress on maximising the utilisation of existing capacities, reducing transmission and distribution losses, development of captive power plants, and adopting non-conventional sources for power generation. The state has given approval for 20.78 percent of its budget outlay to be spent on the energy sector in 2007-08. Demand for power has been driven by the agriculture and industrial sectors.
Source: Punjab Statistical
Source: Punjab Statistical
In 1990-91, total installed capacity in the state was 3,049 MW which went upto 4,626 MW in 2006-07. Its per capita consumption of electricity is 940 kWH, nearly 2.5 times the all-India number of 390.3 kWH. All its inhabited villages have been electrified. Recently, two thermal power plants have been declared at Talwandi Sobo in district Mansa and Nabha in district Patiala, each with a capacity of 1,200 MW.
The state has witnessed a substantial progression in its telecommunications infrastructure since the announcement of the new National Telecommunications Policy (NTP) in 1999, which underlined the participation of the private sector in the telecommunications industry. The Punjab circle had 12.44 million wireless subscribers and 1.66 million wireline subscribers as on September 30, 2008. The state has about 3,960 post offices, 380 telegraph offices and 1,528 telephone exchanges. The Software Technology Park of India (STPI), Mohali, has two dedicated satellite earth stations. TDMA radio links or optical fibre links can be easily established.
Punjab facilitates the availability of land through its notified Land Allotment Policy, 2002. Furthermore, it emphasizes on sector-specific infrastructure for food, apparel, biotech and IT, and electronics.
The Punjab State Industrial Development Corporation (PSIDC) has developed over 80 industrial estates, growth centres and industrial focal points in the state. These estates provide the units with basic infrastructure, which include uninterrupted electricity and water supply, sewerage and common roads.
Punjab's main business and commercial centres are:
Chandigarh - MohaliChandigarh is the capital city of Punjab and the administrative headquarters of the Government of Punjab. Mohali is a twin township of Chandigarh and the hub for Information Technology (IT)/Information Technology Enabled Services (ITES), electronics and pharmaceutical industries. The State Government is actively pursuing proposals to set up an IT-based Special Economic Zone at Mohali.
Ludhiana - JalandharSpread over 6,400 sq km Ludhiana - Jalandhar are two of Punjab's largest cities with a population of over five million.They also form Punjab's principal industrial hubs, dominated by textiles and light engineering goods industries. Ludhiana is the domestic leader in acrylic yarn and woollens and is gearing up for growth in knitwear exports in the post quota regime, especially as the Indian textile industry enjoys a zero excise status.
Ludhiana - AmritsarUnder the Government of India's Industrial Infrastructure Upgradation Scheme, the state is developing two industrial clusters, at Ludhiana and Amritsar, to promote cotton and woollen textile exports respectively. These clusters involve an investment of US$ 1 1 million each. The State Government is also working out the modalities of setting up a General Product Zone in Amritsar.
Punjab Apparel ParkTo offer superior infrastructure support to apparel export units, the State Government is developing the Punjab Apparel Park at Ludhiana. The park to be set up at the cost of US$ 75 million will be developed by the Apparel Exporters Association of Ludhiana (APPEAL) in collaboration with the Punjab Small Industries and Export Corporation (PSIEC). Spread over 100 acres, the park will be self sufficient in terms of infrastructure, with an effluent treatment plant and a 5-10 MW captive power plant.
Pushpa Gujral Science CityThe State Government along with the Central Government is setting up the Pushpa Gujral Science City (PGSC), an international level science centre to encourage R&D in agriculture and promote agro-based industry. The institute will be spread over 71 acres and will be located on the Jalandhar - Kapurthala state highway.